The Trinity/Triun-ness of God - Part 3

By Rev. Allan Moorhead

Old Covenant Themes of God the Father,
God the Son, and God the Spirit

GOD the Father

Isaiah 63:16 tells us that God is our father:
Doubtless thou art our father, though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not: thou, O LORD, art our father, our redeemer; thy name is from everlasting.

This is important to the fact that some non-Trinitarians do not believe that God is called a 'father' in the Old Covenant. In the New Covenant, it is commonly mentioned that there is the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. So it is important to show that the concept of Father, Son and Holy Spirit is also mentioned in the Old Covenant.
Isaiah 64:8 also tells us that God is our Father. Moses calls Yahweh Father in Deuteronomy 32:6. Malachi calls God father in Malachi 2:10.
If God is a father then he must have a son or sons.
In Exodus 4:22 God calls Israel is son: And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn. In Deuteronomy 14:1, Israel is called the "sons of Yahweh, your Elohim". Now is there mention of another son who is begotten by God? Let's turn our attention to God the Son.

God the Son

Psalms 2:1-12
1) Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing?
2) The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his anointed, saying,
3) Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us.
4) He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.
5) Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure.
6) Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.
7) I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee.
8) Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth [for] thy possession.
9) Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.
10) Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. 11) Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling.
12) Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him.

There are several points to look at here. Although this can somewhat apply to King David, it does not completely fit for him. This is a tactic God uses a lot in the Psalms. He speaks on one point and quickly turns it to another. Beginning with verse one we see the psalmist say "against Yahweh and his anointed". The word 'anointed' is the same word for Messiah.
In verse six we see that 'I' has set his king in mount Zion. This obviously is not David. David did not set himself as king. It is also interesting that the Hebrew word for 'set' (nacak) has an in depth meaning. It also means 'pour out' as in a libation for a sacrifice. It can mean 'offer', 'anointed' 'cast' and 'melted'. The use of the word as 'set' in only used once and it is here. The sense we are getting is that this king is none other than Yeshua because he was poured out, offered as a sacrifice, anointed as king, cast away as a sin offering, and his death on the cross 'melted' his body.

In verse seven, Yahweh says, "thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee". It is interesting that the word 'begotten' is 'yalad' in Hebrew. It is used 498 times in the Old Covenant. God never used this word once in speaking of Him begetting any single individual. There are two possibilities where God used this word speaking of the nation of Israel and that would be in Deuteronomy 32:18 and Hosea 2:3. But even then he used it as an indication of Israel being formed as a people and a nation. It appears here in Psalms 2, that the LORD is speaking of an individual and not a nation. There is only one begotten person that the LORD calls his begotten and that is Yeshua his son. The writer of Hebrews 5:5 quotes this scripture when talking about Yeshua:

So also Messiah glorified not himself to be made a high priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee.

In verse eight, we see that all the earth will be given to him as a possession. This Son will be King and will judge the nations as seen in verse 9. In Psalms 24:1, Yahweh says all the earth and all who are in it are his. Yet Yahweh gives all of it to his son. His son is no ordinary person.
In verse 12 we are told to "Kiss the Son" and we will be blessed if we put our trust in him. This does not seem to refer to David or the nation of Israel.
All the rulers of the earth are required to 'Kiss the Son'. They are required to pay homage to the Son and to put their trust in him. This Son will be their Saviour.

Proverbs 30:4

Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended? who hath gathered the wind in his fists? who hath bound the waters in a garment? who hath established all the ends of the earth? what [is] his name, and what [is] his son's name, if thou canst tell?

Here we have a series of questions. Who is all powerful and has created all things? The answer is God. But we have another question and that is what is his name? No one really knows the name of God. We call him all sorts of titles to represent Him. Even the four-letter reference to God (YHWH) is a mystery to us. We don't know how to pronounce it. Not knowing the name of God has divineness qualities because he is beyond having a name. The next question is "what is his son's name"? This too sets a divine quality to the Son because at that time who can know his name. No one knows because he hasn't been revealed in the flesh yet. This is not a mere man nor is it the nation of Israel because we know their name. The writer of this Psalm understood the multi-personal nature of God.

Daniel chapter 3 is a story about three young Jewish men who were thrown into a fiery furnace for refusing to worship none but God. The Babylonian King came to the furnace and looked in. What did he see but four people in the fire instead of three. He said the fourth looked like the Son of God.

He answered and said, Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God (Daniel 3:25).

How did the king know what the Son of God looked like? The king saw someone who looked like a man but had something different about him that immediately cause to king to proclaim him as like the Son of God. There was obviously a belief in a Son of God long before Yeshua came. However, there are those who say this person was none other than a created angel.

Isaiah 9:6-7

For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.

This son's name will be called wonderful. The Hebrew word is pele'. It means extraordinary and hard to understand. This is like when Samson's dad Manoah met the Angel of the LORD and asked him his name.
And the angel of the LORD said unto him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is secret (Judges 13:18)? This word 'secret' (piliy) comes from the same root that is used in Isaiah 9:6 for wonderful (pele'). They both mean hard to comprehend or understand. This would make the son and the Angel of the LORD one and the same. This child in Isaiah is a God/Man child. His name is hard to understand; he is called the mighty God (EL Gibbor) and he is the everlasting Father. Everlasting Father can be translated as "The Father of eternal life". He is the Prince of Peace. He will bring the entire world under his domination and cause peace to exist. Also, his government will never end. All of these attributes show that the Son is God. Isaiah 7:14 tells us that a virgin will conceive and bear a son and that his name will be Immanuel. Immanuel is translated as God 213 times out of 245 times the word is used. The other times it is used for might or power or for lesser gods. Other scholars say Immanuel means 'God with us'.

God the Spirit

There are 62 references to the Holy Spirit in the Old Covenant. The Spirit is not some impersonal energy force as many try to describe it. For the Spirit to be a person, He has to show personal traits. Let's look at some of them.

Isaiah 63:10

But they rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them.
The children of Israel vexed the Holy Spirit. That is, they grieved the Spirit, They caused the Spirit pain by their unbelief and disobedience. Saul also tells us to not grieve the Holy Spirit in Ephesians 4:30:
And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.
You can't cause an impersonal energy force pain. This Spirit is a person. In verse 11 the writer says that the Holy Spirit was put within them. This Spirit was given to the Hebrews to help them:
Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, [and] his people, [saying], Where [is] he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? where [is] he that put his holy Spirit within him?

Micah 2:7

O thou that art named the house of Jacob, is the spirit of the LORD straitened? are these his doings? do not my words do good to him that walketh uprightly?
Here we see the LORD correcting the house of Jacob. He wants to know if the Spirit has come up short or if the Spirit is causing Jacob to do these bad things. The LORD is being sarcastic. Obviously, the Spirit would not lead people into sin. This shows that the Spirit leads people and directs paths of those who will be obedient. This Spirit operates by choice and only in righteousness.

In many cases in the Bible the Spirit of the LORD came upon someone and they prophesied. Examples would be 1 Samuel 10:10, 1 Samuel 19:20, 1 Samuel 19:23, 1 Kings 22:24, and Nehemiah 9:30. 2 Samuel 23:1-2 says "The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue." This tells us that the Spirit has something to say which is another attribute of a person.
In Psalms 51:11 David asks the LORD to "not take the Holy Spirit" from him. David knew when the Spirit was present in his life and he knew that God could take the Spirit away.
In Exodus 31:3 we read this "And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship". This tells us that the Spirit can give someone wisdom, understanding, knowledge, and even workman skills.

We learn in Isaiah 11:2 that the Messiah will possess certain attributes given by the Spirit, "And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD".

Psalms 139:7 Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? You can't hid from the Spirit of God or flee from the presence of God.
The Spirit of God had a part in the creation. "And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters (Genesis 1:2).

Job 33:4, "The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life." Here we have a claim by the Spirit that he made a man. Only God can do this. This claim is valid because the Spirit is God also.
Psalm 104:30 also claims that the Spirit creates, "Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created: and thou renewest the face of the earth."

Isaiah 48:16

Come ye near unto me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; from the time that it was, there am I: and now the Lord GOD, and his Spirit, hath sent me.

Isaiah says, the writer was sent by the Lord God (Adonai Yahweh) and his Spirit. Who is this writer? Let's look at verses 12 and 13.
Hearken unto me, O Jacob and Israel, my called; I am he; I am the first, I also am the last. Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: when I call unto them, they stand up together.
The person speaking is the first and last and the creator. The creator was sent by Yahweh and the Spirit. Here is a depiction of the Godhead. There are three persons involved in this scripture that all represent God.
Colossians 1:16 says, "For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him." Saul (Paul) is speaking of Yeshua.
In Revelation 1:11 Yeshua also calls himself the first and last. "Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last".
All members of the Godhead can call themselves the Creator and the first and last because they are one.

Other Evidences of the Old Covenant Trinity

Hosea chapters 5 and 6
Hosea is speaking the words of the LORD (YAHWEH) and is letting Israel know that the LORD will remove himself from them for their sins.
They shall go with their flocks and with their herds to seek the LORD; but they shall not find him; he hath withdrawn himself from them (verse 5:6).
I (YAHWEH) will go and return to my place, till they acknowledge their offence, and seek my face: in their affliction they will seek me early (verse 5:15).
Come, and let us return unto the LORD: for he hath torn, and he will heal us; he hath smitten, and he will bind us up (verse 6:1). After two days will he revive us: in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight (verse 6:2).

These prophetic words of Hosea were speaking of a future time in Israel. It is interesting to note that Yahweh will return to his place until Israel repents. He also shows that Israel will repent and acknowledge their sin. This will not happen until the coming of the Messiah in the last days. Since Yeshua is the only one who can say that he left his place in the first place. That is, the Son of God left his estate in heaven to come to the earth. Then he withdrew from Israel after his resurrection. Then this is talking about Yeshua who in this case is called YAHWEH.
This is also saying that after two days YAHWEH returns. Since there is no evidence of YAHWEH returning after two days, it must have a different connotation. The scripture tells us that a day can be as a thousand years with the Lord God in prophetic terms (Psalms 90:4 and 2 Peter 3:8). This would mean that after two thousand years Yeshua will come back to fulfill this scripture. There is no known case where this scripture has already been fulfilled.
So what we have here is Yeshua being called YAHWEH.

Zechariah 13:7
Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man [that is] my fellow, saith the LORD of hosts: smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered: and I will turn mine hand upon the little ones.

This scripture is talking about the Messiah. Specifically speaking of the death of the Messiah. The word "fellow" is "amiyth" which means 'a relation', 'neighbor', or 'another'. Since the word "my fellow" is used. This would indicate more of an intimate relation. God is calling for the death of a close relation, which was Yeshua.
There are many other clues of the Trinity in the Old Covenant. Some are subtle such as Ecclesiastes 12:1:
Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth, while the evil days come not, nor the years draw nigh, when thou shalt say, I have no pleasure in them;
In the Hebrew the word 'creator' is plural. It should have been translated as "Creators".


In the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Covenant written in 200 BC) the scholars translated the word 'Meshiah' (anointed one) in Hebrew as 'Christ' in Psalms 2:2 and Daniel 9:26.
The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his anointed (Christ), (Psalm 2:2).

And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah (Christ) be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined (Daniel 9:26).

Both of these scriptures show that the Jewish scholars believed that the Messiah would be a person. This also shows that in Psalms 2:2 that the anointed is not speaking of Israel or David because as discussed earlier Psalm 2:2 is about the Son of God as shown in verse 7. This is important because many rabbinical teachers today will say that these scriptures refer to Israel to avoid any connection to Yeshua.

In the Targums (Aramaic Old Covenant Bible Paraphrases and Commentaries), it is stated for Genesis 3:15 that this seed is the Messiah. Actual words are, "in the days of King Messiah".
And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
The ancient writers agree that this scripture is about the Messiah. Notice that it says 'her seed'. Women don't have seed but men do. What was being implied here is none other than this will be a very special seed. In fact, the seed will be not of man but of God by the Holy Spirit in the virgin birth of Yeshua.

In the Targum of Psalm 45:3-8 the writer refers to the subject of Psalm 45 as the Messiah. He writes, "Your beauty O King Messiah". Look at verse seven:
Thou (Elohim) lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.
The psalmist is saying that Elohim has a God. The Targum writer is saying that the Messiah will be God.
Isaiah 9:6-7 says this, For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of [his] government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.
The Targums of this scripture say, "Mighty God, existing forever, the Messiah". The writer of Targums says that the Messiah is the Mighty God.

It is also interesting that the Targum of Isaiah 53 says that this is talking about the Messiah. The Targum says "Behold my servant, the Messiah". This shows in fact that there were those who believed that Isaiah 53 is about the suffering Messiah and that it is not about the nation of Israel.

The Targum of Micah 5:2 says this:

"from you shall come forth before me the Messiah … he whose name was mentioned from old, from ancient times". This Targum realizes that the Messiah name is mentioned from ancient times.
But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting (Micah 5:2).

The Jonathan Targums spoke of the Messiah as God. In Psalm 45 such phrases as "annionted Messiah", "Lord", "the Memra of the Lord" (verse 23) are used to describe the Messiah. Memre is one of the ways Jews spoke of God appearing on earth. This word is used over 1500 times in the Targums. It is the same concept as the "Word of God". Memra created the world as the Word created the world. Theophanies was Memra in human form. (Taken from 'The Trinity' by Robert Morey, page 218.)

Many times in the Targum's commentaries, the word 'YHWH' was translated as the "Word of YHWH". In Genesis 1:27 the Jonathan Targum replaced 'YHWH' with "the Word of YHWH" which made the scripture to say that "the Word of YHWH created man".

In the commentary of Isaiah 45:17 and 25, the Targum Jonathan replaces YHWH with "the Word of YHWH".
"But Israel shall be saved by the Word of YHWH with an everlasting salvation…By the Word of YHWH shall all the seed of Israel by justified…"

In the Targum Jonathan for Hosea 1:7 YHWH was replaced with "the Word of YHWH".
"But I will have mercy upon the house Judah, and I will save them by the WORD of YHWH, their God".

The Apostle John must have known these concepts about the Word of God from these earlier writings of the Targums.


Kabbalah has been around since Abraham. There is a belief that God passed information on to Abraham about himself and this was orally passed on from generation to generation. It was written down around 515 BC. The main book for the Kabbalah is the Zohar. Others are Sefer Yezirah and the Bahir. Kabbalah is also a way to search out God's word. In the ancient days Kabbalah looked at four main points in studying God's word:
1. Pashat- the simple understanding or literal meaning
2. Remez- to understand to implied meaning. The hints of a deeper truth.
3. Drash- the allegorical, typological, or homiletical applications
4. Sod- the deepest level to understand the mysterious or hidden meanings of God's word.
This studying technique is known as PaRDeS. This is the way even today most believers study the word of God.
Unfortunately, after the destruction of the temple in 70 AD the Kabbalah went into the wrong hands and it slowly became a mystic concept full of errors. Today, the study of Kabbalah is something to stay away from. It is full of new age concepts. However, the writings of ancient Kabbalah holds some good information about how the ancients thought about the Trinity.
The following are some quotes from the Kabbalah:

"How can they (the three) be One? Are they verily One, because we call them One? How Three can be One, can only be known through the revelation of the Holy Spirit". Zohar vol ii. p. 43, verse 22. (Taken from the book Full Circle by Raymond Robert Fischer page 106).

"Come and see the mystery of the word, Jehova: there are three steps, each existing by itself; nevertheless they are One, and so united that one cannot be separated from the other". Zohar vol iii. Amsterdam editions. 65. (ibid).

"The Ancient Holy One is revealed with three Heads, which are united in One, and that Head is thrice exalted. The Ancient Holy One is described as being Three…". Zohar vol iii Amsterdam edition. 288. (ibid)

"When God created the world, He created it through the Three Sephiroth, namely, through Sepher and Sippur, by which the Three twywh (beings) are meant…The Rabbi, my Lord Teacher of blessed memory, explained Sepher, Sapher, and Sioppur, to be synonymous to Ja, Jehovah, and Elohim meaning to say that the world was created by these three names." Rabbi Eliezer Hakkalir, The Book of Creation pp 28-29. (ibid p 108)

"Thus are YHWH; ELOHEYNU; YHWH but one unity, three substantive beings which are one; and this, is indicated by the voice which a person uses in reading the words, 'Hear, O Israel,' thereby comprehending with the understanding the most perfect unity of EYN SOF (the boundless one); because all three are read with one voice, which indicates a trinity {t'lita}." Zohar vol. 2 p. 43, as quoted by Trimm. (ibid p 116)

It is interesting that Kabbalah teaches that there are three pillars of God that constitutes the graph the Kabbalists call the tree of life. There are ten attributes of God listed in this tree of life graph that forms the 3 pillars. The left pillar contains the masculine attributes of God. The pillar on the right contains the feminine attributes of God. These teachers arrive at this by the gender of these attributes. When the Spirit is spoken of, it is generally in the feminine tense. The middle pillar is known as the Son of Yah. The middle pillar's gematria equals 26 which is the gematria of YHWH. So YHWH again relates to Yeshua as the Son of Yah. Here you have a great example of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Zohar also teaches that the Angel of the LORD (Metatron) is the Son of Yah.
"To keep the way of the tree of life. (Gen. 3:24) who is the way to the tree of life? It is the great Metatron, for he is the way to that great tree, to that mighty tree of life. Thus it is written. 'The Angel of God, which went before the camp if Israel, removed and went behind them.' (Exodus 14:19) And Metatron is called the Angel of God. Come and see, thus says R. Simeon. The Holy One, blessed Be He, has prepared for Himself a holy Temple above in the heavens, a holy city, a city in the heavens, and called it Jerusalem, the holy city. Every petition sent to the King, must be through Metatron. Every message and petition from here below, must first go to Metatron, and from thence to the king. Metatron is the Mediator of all that comes from heaven down to the earth, or from the earth up to heaven. And because he is the mediator of all, it is written 'And the Angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed; that is, before Israel which is above.' (Ex. 14:19) This Angel of God is the same of whom it is written 'And YHWH went before them…' (Ex. 13:21) to go by day and by night as the ancients have expounded it. Whoever will speak to me {says God} shall not be able to do so, till he has made it known to Metatron. Thus the holy One, blessed be He, on account of the great love to and mercy with which He has over the Assembly of Israel, commits her (the Assembly to Metatron's care. What shall I do for Him (Metatron)? I will commit my Whole house into His hand, etc. Henceforth be you a Keeper As it is written 'The Keeper of Israel' (PS. 121:4) Zohar, vol. li p.115, Amsterdam Edition (ibid page 130)

Keep in mind that this information was written long before Yeshua lived.

The Talmud had this say about Zechariah 12:10:
What is the cause of the mourning {of Zech. 12:12}---…It is well according to him who explains that the cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph, since that well agrees with the scriptural verse: 'And they shall look upon Me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him as one mourns for his only son.' Talmud, b. Sukkot 52a, quoted by Trimm (ibid p 125)

In the Midrash, Soncino Edition, there is a comment about the Messiah
on Lamentations 1:16, "What is the name of King Messiah? R. Abba b. Kahana said, "His name is Lord" as it is stated, 'And this is the name whereby he shall be called, 'LORD' (YHWH) our Righteousness'" (Jeremiah 23:6) (VII:135-136). (Taken from 'The Trinity' by Robert Morey, page 221.)

In the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Messiah was referred to as Melchizedek and David. (CD (CD-B) Col XIX, 7-11)

In another Dead Sea Scroll, the Messiah will be known as the Son of God. His kingdom will be an eternal kingdom. (4Q Aramaic Apocalypse [4Q246] Col I:7-9; Col II:1, 5-8)

In the 4th Book of Ezra it says, "My Son the Messiah", "My Son", "My Son the Messiah will appear", "performs miracles", "My Son the Messiah will die" (7:28-29, 13:1-13, 13:32, 37, 52, 14:9)

In 1 Enoch the Messiah is called the "Son of Man" (49:2). He is called the "Righteous One" (38:2). He is also called the "Elect One" (38:6). Enoch says "All who dwell upon the earth shall fall down and worship before him (Son of Man), 1Enoch 48:2-6. 1 Enoch 52:4 says that the Messiah is to be "praised upon the earth".
The Son of Man is to be worshipped. The Messiah is to be worshipped. Yet, in Exodus 34:14 we find that only God is to be worshipped: For thou shalt worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.
Not even angels are we to worship. In Revelation 22:8 John fell down before an angel who told him to get back up and not do such a thing:

And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which shewed me these things. Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book: worship God.

In the New Covenant we see continuous references about worshipping Yeshua, but more on that during the New Covenant teaching on the Trinity.

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