By Rabbi Mike Short

This paper, of course is a hot potato today with Sunday so well established in Christendom. Sunday was well established as the day of worship before The United States of America was organized. It was 574 years old when the Declaration of Independence was penned in 1776. What you say! Wasnít Sunday declared in the New Testament? My answer is, of course, no Sunday wasnít established in the New Testament, in fact, it is not declared anywhere in the Bible. There are some references to the believers meeting on the first day of the week. Here it is called "the first day of the week" and not Sunday.

John 20:19
19 Then the same day at evening, being the
first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.

Acts 20:7
7 And upon the
first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight.

1 Corinthians 16:2
2 Upon the
first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.

And we know that Yeshua(Jesus) arose on the
first day of the week as indicated by the Apostles.

Matthew 28:1
1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the
first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.

Mark 16:2
2 And very early in the morning the
first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.

Mark 16:9
9 Now when Jesus was risen early the
first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.

Luke 24:1
1 Now upon the
first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.

John 20:1
1 The
first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.

All of these references point to the same event, but why was it necessary for the Messiah to be raised up on this day? Lets look at Leviticus Chapter 23 where the Lord is describing His Feasts.

Leviticus 23:10-12
10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest:
11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the
morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it. (The first day of the week MLS)
12 And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the LORD.

We know that the Messiah was our Passover Lamb, His is the Unleaven Bread and now He is the First Fruits. With this resurrection He has fulfilled three of the Feasts of the Lord. Passover, Unleaven Bread and First Fruits. Of the seven feasts of the Lord there are two that take place on the morrow after the Sabbath according to Leviticus 23, which are First Fruits and Shavuot (Pentecost). But today these two feasts are not celebrated by Jews on the days that God had planned. The Rabbiís have declared that all the feasts are Sabbaths, therefore, the morrow after the Sabbath is any day that follows a feast. And Christians do not celebrate any of the feasts of the Lord including the Sabbath much to their misfortune as God has laid out a beautiful method for us to fully enjoy what the Messiah has done for us. Through His Feasts the Lord paints a wonderful picture or a teaching of His Nature and His plans for us.

I had not planned to start this note out this way. I had laid it out nicely in place in my mind has to how and what I was going to say. I always put it together and go over it in my mind before I start typing, including all my references so that I do start typing I donít have to scramble around for the references. However, I have also learned that it is not me that comes up with these thoughts but they are put there by the Rauch HaKodesh (Holy Spirit). One way the Lord lets me know that it was His idea and not mine is, to me it is uncanny, that whenever the Lord gives me these thoughts some large ministry or well known minister will publish an article within a short period of time, usually within a month or two after I have already written what the Lord wanted me to do.

In the case of this thought it wasnít two weeks after the Lord put on my mind and I had started to formulate the article. I had not even started to write I was just putting it together in my mind. I was given an article by a friend that local very successful minister here in Phoenix had put together about Sunday and how it was the true day of worship. I blurted out "thatís incredible, thatís is exactly what I working on right now". I have heard great things about this minister but after reading the article I began to worry about all of his teachings and what was He really teaching the believers. The reason for my concern is the way He in which uses the scriptures. One was when He described the Jerusalem Council (Acts 15) on Gentile believers. In the article He stated that the Sabbath was not put upon the Gentiles as being necessary. He stated that it was obvious that the Rauch HaKodesh (The Holy Spirit) did not think Sabbath keeping was essential. There are two things missing here; 1) Sabbath keeping was not the reason behind the Jerusalem Council; it was conversion to Judaism and Circumcision were the issues being discussed. 2) He skipped over Acts 15:21 where it states that the Law of Moses was taught on the Sabbath and if you read the scriptures you will see that this is the same subject. So Sabbath worship was already established to the believers, and did not have to be ordered by the Rauch, as was the other requirements indicated.

Also in this Pastorís article He referenced from John 20:19 that was obvious that Yeshua (Jesus) established Sunday by appearing to His Disciples on the first day of the week. Why do you think Yeshua came to His Disciples on the first day of the week? To me it is obvious; He wanted to meet with them in private so that He could teach them without any interruptions. Can you imagine the chaos it would have caused if Yeshua had shown up at the Temple! Another was Acts 20:7 where the believers got together and broke bread and studied; hasnít anyone ever heard of home fellowship and Bible study?

Acts 15:21
21 For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

Using the type of logic that this Pastor used we could say that the white male in the United States does not have any rights. Why do I say that; because in the Bill of Rights as it is written, the white male is the only group missing. Why are they missing? Because when the Bill of Rights was written it was established that the white male at that time was the controlling group and they were writing the Bill of Rights. However this article is not to refute this Pastors article, His article is only used here to point out how the Church goes out of itís way to make Sunday the day of worship. Whenever you take scriptures out of context or just pull out the part you need to make your point, you can begin to teach error and false doctrine. Once again this article is not intended to point all the "false" doctrines being taught.

I will touch upon two other "false" teachings we have in the Church; 1) the Jews rejected Jesus and 2) the Jews killed Jesus! First letís discuss number one. To say that Jews rejected Jesus is like saying Americans believe in abortion, in over ninty percent of the people I talk to DO NOT believe in abortion but it is the Law of the Land put upon us by the Leaders of America. So then the Leaders of the Temple did reject Him because their cushy jobs were at stake, but if you look at scriptures you will see that the multitudes turned to Him every time they had a chance; so lets look at some scriptures:
Matthew 21:7-10
7 And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon.
8 And a
very great multitude spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed them in the way.
9 And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest.
10 And when he was come into
Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this?
Mark 11:7-10
7 And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him; and he sat upon him.
8 And
many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down branches off the trees, and strawed them in the way.
9 And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord:
10 Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest.

Luke 19:35-39
35 And they brought him to Jesus: and they cast their garments upon the colt, and they set Jesus thereon.
36 And as he went, they spread their clothes in the way.
37 And when he was come nigh, even now at the descent of the mount of Olives,
the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen;
38 Saying, Blessed be the King that cometh in the name of the Lord: peace in heaven, and glory in the highest.
39 And some of the
Pharisees from among the multitude said unto him, Master, rebuke thy disciples.

Remember Zacchaeus there were so many people that He couldnít see the Messiah so He climbed a tree. Have you ever been to parade? When we have a parade in Phoenix usually it is only 2 ½ miles long with reports of over 250,000 to 500,000 people attending. Some of the parades that Yeshua (Jesus) had were over five miles long. How many people do you think will fit in a five mile parade?
Luke 19:1-4
1 And Jesus entered and passed through Jericho.
2 And, behold, there was a man named Zacchaeus, which was the chief among the publicans, and he was rich.
3 And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and
could not for the press, because he was little of stature.
4 And he ran before, and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him: for he was to pass that way.

I think that covers point one pretty well, donít you.

The second point wonít be as long as the first as we need only to point out that crucifixion was a Roman punishment for death and stoning was the Jewish method and we have Yeshuaís own words in John Chapter 10
John 10:17-18
17 Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again.
18 No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father.
Nothing else needs to be said.

So then what is the point of this article? Iím glad you asked! It started out to show when Sunday became the Sabbath. First letís get some definitions as to what the two words mean:
(The two references come from MSN Encarta)

Sunday, first day of the week. Its English name and its German name ( Sonntag) are derived from the Latin dies solis, "sun's day," the name of a pagan Roman holiday. In the New Testament (see Revelation 1:10) it is called the Lord's Day (Dominica in the Latin version), from which the name of Sunday is derived in Romance languages (French Dimanche; Italian Domenica; Spanish Domingo; Roman Duminica). In the early days of Christianity, Sunday began to replace the Sabbath and to be observed to honor the resurrection of Christ. Sunday was instituted as a day of rest, consecrated especially to the service of God, by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great. Since the 4th century, ecclesiastical and civil legislation has frequently regulated work on Sunday and service attendance. In the United States, laws limiting business activity and amusements on Sundays have become known as Blue Laws.

Sabbath (Hebrew Shabbat, derived from the verb shavat, "to rest, cease"), a holy day of rest observed by the Jews and some Christian denominations on the seventh day of the week (see Saturday) and by most Christians on Sunday. The Bible describes the Sabbath as a reminder of God's rest after the Creation (see Exodus 20:11) and of the liberation from Egypt (see Deuteronomy 5:15). The prohibition of work (see Deuteronomy 5:12-14) is never fully explained in the Bible. Among the specific kinds of work prohibited are the kindling of fire (see Exodus 35:3), plowing and harvesting (see Exod. 34:21), and cooking (see Exod. 16:23). The rabbis of postbiblical times derived from Scripture 39 categories of prohibited activity. These main categories and their derivative prohibitions form the basis of modern Orthodox and Conservative Jewish observance of the Sabbath. The Reform and Reconstructionist movements view the laws as advisory rather than binding.

(The following comes from Jewish sources)
The Sabbath (or Shabbat, as it is called in Hebrew) is one of the best known and least understood of all Jewish observances. People who do not observe Shabbat think of it as a day filled with stifling restrictions, or as a day of prayer like the Christian Sabbath. But to those who observe Shabbat, it is a precious gift from
G-d, a day of great joy eagerly awaited throughout the week, a time when we can set aside all of our weekday concerns and devote ourselves to higher pursuits. In Jewish literature, poetry and music, Shabbat is described as a bride or queen, as in the popular Shabbat hymn Lecha Dodi Likrat Kallah (come, my beloved, to meet the [Sabbath] bride). It is said "more than Israel has kept Shabbat, Shabbat has kept Israel."

Shabbat is the most important ritual observance in Judaism.
It is the only ritual observance instituted in the Ten Commandments. It is also the most important special day, even more important than Yom Kippur. This is clear from the fact that more aliyoth (opportunities for congregants to be called up to the Torah) are given on Shabbat than on any other day.
Shabbat is primarily a day of rest and spiritual enrichment. The word "Shabbat" comes from the root Shin-Bet-Tav, meaning to cease, to end, or to rest.

Now that we have the definitions, it quite clear that Sunday is a Pagan Holiday and that the Sabbath is a Holy Day. So how did we in the Church get around to replacing the Sabbath with Sunday. Well in 325 C.E. (A.D.) the Nicene Council under the leadership of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great started the change by trying to get rid of everything Jewish.

I always thought it strange that when the Jewish believers wanted to make the Gentile believers in the Jewish Messiah converts to Judaism; there was a champion to defend their rights and as we have seen the Jerusalem Council listened to him. But when the Gentiles believers in the Jewish Messiah; not only wanted but forced the Jewish believers in the Jewish Messiah to give up everything Jewish; there wasnít a Jewish Bishop invited to this Council and there certainly wasnít a champion among them. Talk about a stacked deck!

Earlier in this article I stated that Sunday was established 574 years before the USA was originated and now I said that in 325 C.E. it was declared that Sunday was to replace the Sabbath, if you have noticed that then you must be saying thatís a lot longer than 574 years. Well you are correct! It took from 325 until 1202 C.E. before it was fully established. A few years ago on Discovery TV there was an article about Sunday and why Constantine wanted to make it the day of worship, this article on secular TV stated that Constantine made Sunday the day of worship to honor His sun god. But the reason to took so long is covered next.

A friend of mine;
Rabbi Doctor Mikhaíel Snidecor of Jerusalem stated in His Doctoral Thesis for the Geneva Theological Seminary of London entitled "Messianic Perspectives" how this all came about. I talked to Him about using some of His material in articles and He gave me Charta Blanc to quote Him. He has or was going to publish this wonderful paper in 2001. At any rate He has done all the research and has properly documented it, so I will be inserting some of His work. The following is taken from Dr. Snidecorís paper and covers the issue pretty well!


"In A.D. 1095, Pope Urban II, consecrated the Sabbath to the weekly service of the Virgin Mary. This was a great indignity to the Creator of the heavens and the earth. In the following century and apparition from St. Peter charged the King of England to allow 'no buying or selling, and no servile work' on Sunday"

The sacredness of Sunday was not yet sufficiently established, because a divine warrant for its observance was still unprovided. The manner in which this urgent necessity was met is related by Roger Hoveden, a historian of high repute, who lived at the very time when this much needed precept, was furnished by the pope. "Hoveden informs us the Eustace, the abbot of Flaye in Normandy, came into England in the year 1200, to preach the word of the Lord, and that his preaching was attended by many wonderful miracles. He was very earnest in behalf of Sunday"

Thus Hoveden says: "At London also, and many other places throughout England, he effected by his preaching, that from that time forward people did not dare to hold market of things exposed for sale on the Lord's day.' But Hoveden tells us that 'the enemy of mankind raised against this man of God the ministers of iniquity,' and it seems that, having no commandment for Sunday, he was in a strait place"

The historian continues: "However, the said abbot, on being censured by the ministers of Satan, was unwilling any longer to molest the prelates of England by his preaching, but returned to Normandy, unto his place whence he came"

But Eustace, though repulsed, had no thought of abandoning the contest. He had no commandment from the Lord when he came into England the first time. But one year's sojourn on the continent was sufficient to provide what he lacked. Hoveden tells us how he returned the following year with the needed precept:....For he (Eustace) said that the commandment under written, as to the observance of the Lord's day, had come down from heaven:"

"But in the very midnight of the Dark Ages, when the papal power had reached its highest elevation, Pope Innocent III., in A.D. 1201, sent into England by Eustace, Abbot of Flaye (also identified elsewhere as Eustachius Abbot of Flay), a roll which fell from heaven, containing the long - needed divine authority for Sunday"
[3]. Here is this remarkable document:

"Eustachius, Abbot of Flay, in Normandy, an associate of Fulco, a French priest and notable hypocrite, who had lighted on a new Sabbatarian fancy, was sent to publish it here in England; but finding opposition to his doctrine, he went back again the next year, being 1202. He, however, soon returned better fortified, preaching from town to town, and from place to place, that no man should presume to market on the Lord's day, as they had done heretofore. Now, for the easier bringing of the people to obey their dictates, they had to show a warrant sent from God himself, as they gave it out, the title and history whereof is as follows:"

There are at least three slightly different translations of the following texts and I have selected two of these to set forth herein. The text as to source
[57] appears within the quotation "marks", while the slightly different text of source [4] is furnished when appropriate within the {brackets}.

"An holy mandate touching the Lord's day, which came down from heaven, unto Jerusalem, found on St. Simeon's altar, in Golgotha, where Christ was crucified for the sins of all the world; which, {The Lord sent down this epistle,} lying there for three days and as many nights. Struck with such terror all that saw it, that falling on the ground they besought G-D's mercy. At last the Patriarch and Akarius {Akarias} the Archbishop, ventured to take into their hands the dreadful letter, {and they opened the scroll, and received the holy epistle from God} which was written thus: {Now wipe your eyes and look awhile on the contents:}"

"I the Lord, who commanded you that ye should observe the dominical holy day {Lord's day}, and ye have not kept it, and ye have not repented of your sins; I have caused repentance to be preached unto you, and ye have not believed. {, as I have said in my Gospel, 'Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.} I sent pagans against you who shed your blood, yet ye repented not. And because ye kept not the day holy {Lord's holy day}, for a few days ye had famine; but I soon gave you plenty, and afterward ye did worse {again}. I will again, that none from the ninth hour {three P.M.} of the Sabbath until the rising of the sun {six A.M.} on Monday, do any work, unless it is good; which if any do, let him amend by repentance. And if ye be not obedient to this command, {verily} I say unto you, and I swear unto you by my seat and throne, and cherubim, who keep {watch} my holy seat, that I will not command you any thing by another epistle, but I will open the heavens, and for rain I will rain upon you stones, and logs of wood, and hot water by night, that none may be able to escape {and so that I may destroy all wicked men}. This do I say unto you, that ye shall die the death because of the dominical holy day {Lord's day}, and other festivals of my saints, which ye have not kept; I will send unto you beasts having the heads of lions, the hair of women, the tails of camels, and they shall be so hunger starved, that they shall devour your flesh, and ye shall desire to flee to the sepulchers of the dead, and hide you for fear of the beasts. And I will take away the light of the sun from your eyes; And I will send upon you darkness, that without seeing, ye may kill {you shall destroy} one another. And I will take away my face from you, and I will not show you mercy; for I will burn your bodies and hearts, and of all those who keep not the dominical holy day {Lord's day}. Hear my voice {words}, lest ye perish in the land {do not perish for neglecting this day}, because of the dominical holy day {Lord's day}. Turn {Depart} from evil, and be penitent for your sins; which if ye do not, ye shall perish as Sodom and Gomorrah {I swear to you by my right hand, that if you do not observe the Lord's day and festivals of my saints, I will send pagan nations to destroy you}. Now know ye, that ye are safe {saved} by the prayers of my most holy mother Mary, and of my {most} holy angels and saints, who daily pray for you. I gave you corn {wheat} and wine abundantly, and them ye did not obey me; for widows and orphans daily cry unto you, to whom you do no mercy. Pagans have mercy, but ye have not. The trees, which bear fruit, I will make to dry up for your sins; the rivers and fountains shall not yield water"

The following paragraph is the terminating point for one of our sources, while the text of the following paragraph in incorporated within a larger paragraph of an alternate source.

"I swear to you by my right hand, that unless ye keep the dominical day {Lord's Day}, and the festivals of my saints, I will send pagans to kill you"

"I gave unto you a law in Mount Sinai, which you have not kept. I gave you a law with mine own hands, which you have not observed. For you I was born into the world and may festive day ye knew not. Being wicked men, ye have not kept the Lord's day of my resurrection. By my right hand I swear unto you, that if you do not observe the Lord's day, and the festivals of my saints, I will send unto you the pagan nations that they may slay you. And still do you attend to the business of others, and take no consideration of this? For this will I send against you still worse beasts, who shall devour the breasts of your women. I will curse those who on the Lord's day have wrought evil.

Those who act unjustly towards their brethren, will I curse. Those who judge unrighteously the poor and the orphans upon the earth will I curse. For me you forsake, and you follow the prince of this world. Give heed to my voice, and you shall have the blessing of mercy. But you cease not from your bad works, nor from the works of the devil. Because you are guilty of perjuries and adulteries, therefore the nations shall surround you, and shall, like beasts, devour you"

Matthew Paris writes in his
MATTHEW PARIS'S HISTORIA MAJOR page 201 has this to say about the Scroll that fell from Heaven: "But when the patriarch and clergy of all the holy land had diligently examined the contents of this epistle, it was decreed in a general deliberation that the epistle should be sent to the judgement of the Roman Pontiff, seeing that whatever he decreed to be done, would please all. And when at length the epistle had come to the knowledge of the lord pope, immediately he ordained heralds, who, being sent through different parts of the world, preached everywhere the doctrine of this epistle, the Lord working with them and confirming their words by signs following. Among whom the abbot of Flay, Eustachius by name, a devout and learned man, having entered the kingdom of England, did there shine with many miracles."

If Eustace had penned the letter himself and then forged a certification from the pope, a few months at most would have produced a warrant and the untimely demise of poor Eustace, but, such was not the case.

The Pope attesting to the validly of the "Scroll from Heaven" sent Eustace around the world, with scroll in hand that all might understand and obey G-D's special new Commandment. As Eustace traveled the validly of the Scroll was supported by "many great miracles" to include the following:

"A carpenter making a wooden pin and a woman making up her web, both after three on Saturday in the afternoon (the specified time in the Scroll from G-D), are suddenly smitten with the palsy. A certain man of Nasserton, baking a cake on Saturday night and keeping part until the morrow, no sooner brake it for his breakfast but it gushed out blood. A miller, of Wakefield, grinding corn on Saturday after three of the clock, instead of meal found his bin full of blood; his mill - wheel standing still of its own accord"


All of this serves to prove that the Roman Catholic Church did, at least during the dark ages, have no problems with creating a letter "from G-D" and perpetrating a monumental hoax on the Christian faith. Embellishing Scripture or even writing new scripture is as nothing in light of this hoax.

Wish as we might for a clear cut answer to these burning Questions, We freely admit that we have no such answer. What we can say is this: G-D has blessed the Messianic Movement by an act of Revelation, that we might catch a glimpse of a very Jewish Gospel of Matthew, a Matthew that reflects in the looking glass mirror a tax collector supportive of the Jewish people, the Jewish way of life, the Jewish form of Worship and a very Jewish Messiah. A Matthew that lacks the label "anti-semitic" and a reflection of hate.

The truth is, if the Copper Scroll is authentic, and all the treasures of the Temple are found and Israel possesses them, then Temple worship will be re-instituted as per the instructions given in the Temple Scroll found in Cave 11, it will be the death of Replacement Theology. Theological Christianity will die with it. The entire "Committee" consists of Replacement Theologians who lost more ground in the rebirth of the Jewish State than the Arabs lost in real estate. That is why the traditional church is so allied with the Palestinian cause. John Strugnell stated, "Judaism is a horrible religion. It should have ceased years ago. . . The State of Israel was a big mistake. It should be dissolved." If the existence of Israel without the Holy Temple is such a big problem to these Replacement Theologians, one can imagine what a problem it will be when the Temple treasures are restored and Temple worship is re-instituted. While this may destroy Christian Theology, it will not destroy the basic faith of Christians-in fact, it will purify it!

***End *of *Dr.*Snidecorís*article***

I will enclose His references using the same numbers in his document. I, of course did not insert the whole document only that part that shows why it took so long for Sunday to replace the Sabbath. But if you really read the typed references you can see why the people in 1202 believed all this, they were in fear of their lives. Today I think it would run into some stiff opposition as the people have grown out of a lot of the superstition that pervaded the times, remember the King James Bible wasnít around until 1611. Before that only the Clergy had the Bible and it was in Latin and they explained it to the people. So anything the Clergy said the people believed. Also remember that because of the Churchís total domination of the people is what caused the ĎDark Agesí. The people were so controlled that they were not allowed to read or even think. That is except the Jews and that didnít help their cause with the Church.

Here are a couple of thoughts to consider, also from Dr. Snidecor :

Every day of our lives in this world we are tested and must make a choice, to serve G-D, or to serve man. There is no difference here between choosing to go to work or choosing to take Johnny to the ball game or choosing to pick up sticks on the Sabbath, all are decisions to place man first and that is the true meaning of stoning to death a man who picks up sticks on the Sabbath.




3) Andrews, J.N.. THE SABBATH AND THE LAW. Oakland, Ca.: Pacific Press Publishing Company, 1890.

4) ibid. HISTORY OF THE SABBATH AND FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK. Battle Creek Michigan: Review & Herald Publishing Association, 1887.

19) Bates, Joseph. THE SEVENTH DAY SABBATH A PERPETUAL SIGN. New Bedford: Press of Benjamin Lindsey, 1846.

57) Carlow, George. A DEFENSE OF THE SABBATH.New York, Paul Stillman publisher, 1847.

Note: All my Bible references are from the KJV, also the red high-light are mine to show emphases.

If you would like to write Rabbi Mike Short with your comments, click the Torah Scroll:


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