"Did G-d Give Moses Two Covenants or One?"
The relevant question is: "How many 'Covenants' did G-d make with the man Moses?" (Let me clarify at the outset that this will not be a discussion of Dual Covenant Theology, i.e., one for Israel and one for the Church.) The following study is quite lengthy, and you will not fully understand its content until you have read it in its entirety. Please do so before you judge it as having any value and being from G-d.
The Hebrew and New Covenant Scriptures provided in this study contain Adah Guzman's Interpretation (AGI - not yet published), also the KJV. Mayim Hayim Ministries believes that the Torah is a work of G-d's Grace. "For the Torah (G-d's teaching, guidance, and instruction) was given to Moses, and Grace and Truth was realized through Yeshua Messiah" - John 1:17 AGI.
Let us begin our study by asking our Father for His blessing:
"Our Father, open our eyes to the Truth of Your Word, allow us to understand how great Your Word truly is. Show us Messiah in all things and keep us from error. We ask this in the Name of Messiah Yeshua, amen."
The Law of G-d
The Law = Torah, which means "(G-d's teaching, guidance, and instruction)," which was given first by the very Mouth of G-d, to all that were present at Mt. Sinai. Afterwards, Moses went up into the mountain where G-d carved out the tables of stones and literally wrote the Ten Commandments upon them with His finger. After 40 days and nights in the presence of G-d, Moses descended the mountain with the tablets of stone. Upon seeing the people worshipping a golden calf, Moses threw the tables down in anger, breaking them. Moses then proceeded to melt the idol with fire and to concoct a brew from its residue, which he made Israel drink. That very day 3000 were put to the sword because of their sin. It is said, "the letter of the Law killeth." ("Who also has made us able ministers of the New Covenant; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter puts to death, but the Spirit gives life." II Cor. 3:6). This Word picture was very clearly seen by Israel that day!
G-d instructed Moses to carve out a second set of tablets and to come back up into Mt. Sinai. Once again, G-d wrote the Ten Commandments on the tables of stone. Moses brought the Commandments down from the mountain and put them into the Ark of Witness, i.e., Testimony.
Hence, we see One Covenant given three times. 1. Spoken by G-d (Exodus 20:1)
2. Carved out by G-d, and written by G-d (Exodus 24:12, 31:18) 3. Carved out by Moses, and written by G-d (Exodus 34:1).
Moses is a picture of the Savior of Israel; a type of Messiah in the Word of G-d. G-d paints pictures of His Messiah throughout His Word for us to see, for Messiah is the Volume of the Book (Psalm 40:7-8; Heb. 10:7). That means, every number, letter, phrase, every Bible Name (Shemology), and even the spaces in the Scriptures are about Him. We need to look for Him as we read the "Word of G-d!"
An FYI note here: Over 600 times in Targums, the Messiah is written as the "Memra" in Aramaic, and as the "Logos" in Greek, John 1:1. If you will study the Names, you will be blessed by what G-d will show you; however, at this time we must stay on track with our current study.
Let us begin with the Holy Scripture concerning the Covenant G-d made with father Avraham in Genesis 12:1-3, and 17:7, reading from chapter 17 verse 7.
The Witness of Genesis 17:7-8
And I will establish My Covenant between Me and you and your seed after you in their generations for an everlasting Covenant, to be a G-d to you, and to your seed after you. And I will give to you and to your seed after you the Land (Israel) wherein you are a stranger, all the Land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their G-d. - AGI -- (This is crystal clear, can you hear it?).
Man under the guidance and direction of G-d's Holy Spirit placed chapter and verse into the Scriptures. I know there are some who do not believe that, but I pay them no mind as I know for a certainty that G-d is the author of all things!
In my second book: "The Mystery Of The Tzitzit On The Hebrew Prayer Shawl Provocative Study on the Value of the Tzitzit" - I show how G-d paints a picture of Himself in the windings of the tzitzit (fringes). By using Hebrew Gematria, the numbers 7, and 8 which = 15, spell and point to "Yah" the first part of our L-RD'S Holy Name - YHVH. The seventeenth letter in the Hebrew AlephBet is "Pey," a picture in the ancient Hebrew language of a "Mouth speaking." So a Word Picture of Genesis (Bereshith) chapter 17 verses 7 and 8 reveals to us what is contained in the verse:
"In Beginning speaking Yah everlasting Covenant."
Subsequently, G-d revealed Himself to Moses (i.e., drawn out of the water) at the age of 80 years old. Once again we see the 17th letter of the Hebrew language, "Pey" which equals the number 80, a mouth speaking.
"Then Moses said to the L-RD, "Please, L-rd (Adonay), I have never been eloquent, neither recently nor in time past, nor since You have spoken to Your servant; for I am slow of speech (pey) and slow of tongue. The L-RD said to him, 'Who has made man's mouth (pey)? Or who makes him mute or deaf, or seeing or blind? Is it not I, the L-RD? Now then go, and I, even I, will be with your mouth (pey), and teach you what you are to say.'" Exodus 4:10-12 AGI
The L-RD then instructed Moses to bring His people out to Mt. Sinai so He could make, really cut, a Covenant with them. I believe we are all familiar with the story of the Exodus.
G-d made this Covenant specifically with the people standing at Mt. Sinai (see Exodus 19). For this account, we will look to the book of Deuteronomy, that book which has been called Moses "last will and testament," rather than to the Exodus portion.
1 Moses called all Israel, and said to them, Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your ears this day, that you may learn them, and keep, and do them.
2 The L-RD our G-d made a Covenant with us in Horeb. (Mt. Sinai)
3 The L-RD made not this Covenant with our fathers, (Avraham, Isaac, and Jacob) but with us, even us, who are all of us here "alive" this day.
4 The L-RD talked with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire,
5 I stood as your mediator between you and the L-RD, for you were afraid of the fire and did not climb the mountain. He spoke to me, and I passed His Words on to you. This is what He said:
6 "I am the L-RD your G-d, who saved you from slavery in Egypt." AGI
So the first Covenant given at Mt. Sinai was not made with the Fathers, Avraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but only those who were alive standing there at the foot of Mt. Sinai. This Covenant was for the people who would enter the LAND, notwithstanding the fact that all who were over 19/20 years of age would die in the desert.
Look also at the following Scriptures: Deut. 6:1,4-10, 8:1,6-7, 12:1, 26:1-2, and see what G-d will show you as we proceed with this study.
Let us now look further at what Moses the mediator wrote:
These are the words of the Covenant, which the L-RD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab (meaning: "seed of the father"), beside the Covenant, which He made with them in Horeb. (Mt. Sinai).
This is the second Covenant given to Moses the mediator. Two Covenants clearly seen in the last book of the Torah. Most Bible teachers call this Covenant, the Palestine Covenant, but I believe this is wrong. This is the Covenant of "Moab," and names are very important to us. Names paint wonderful pictures for us in the Word of G-d.
Lets go further...
10 You stand this day all of you before the L-RD your G-d; your captains of your tribes, your elders, and your officers, with all the men of Israel,
11 Your little ones, your wives, and the stranger (ger- foreigners) that is in your camp, from the hewer of the wood to the drawer of the water:
12 That you should enter into Covenant with the L-RD your G-d, and into His Oath, which the L-RD your G-d makes with you (Israel) this day:
13 That He may establish you "today" for a people to Himself, and that He may be to you a G-d,
as He has said to you (in the past), and as He has sworn to the Fathers, to Avraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.
14 Neither with you only do I make this Covenant and this Oath;
15 But with him that stands here with us this day before the L-RD our G-d, and also with him that is not here with us this day: AGI
So this second Covenant was cut in Moab, or the place called the "seed of the father." Are you seeing a picture here?
A Side Trip: Let us take a minute to read what the New Covenant Scriptures tells us about Lot, Avraham's nephew. Lot is spoken of only three times in the New Covenant Scriptures - Luke 17:28-29; II Peter 2:7-8. It is the latter ones we will look at:
"G-d delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked: (For that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful [untorahful] deeds;)" II Peter 2:7-8. AGI
Lot never really seemed to me to be a "just" man, yet Scriptures tell us he was. It is G-d's Grace that is always at work for mankinds good and our benefit, and we must praise Him for His good to Lot. In the eyes of G-d, Lot was a "just" man because Lot listen to the L-RD'S messengers. We will not say more about him now, but I did want to show you a Word picture I found in II Peter 2:7-8.
As many of you know, in the Hebrew AlephBet there are 22 letters with 5 final letters, giving us a total of 27 letters. It just so happens there are 27 books of the New Covenant Scriptures as well. I believe each one coincides with a Hebrew letter, and was planned out that way by G-d to teach us something. So lets look at one more Word Picture in II Peter 2:7-8 on this side trip.
Second Peter is the 22nd book of the New Covenant, equivalent to the 22nd letter in the Hebrew AlephBet, the Tav . It speaks of "a Mark - a picture of a Cross in ancient Hebrew." Chapter two (Bet ) speaks of "the House of G-d and also Duality in the Word of G-d." Verses 7 and 8 together once again speak of "Yah." Peter's name means, "rock." Remember now all things in the Word of G-d point to Messiah, the Volume of the Book (Psalm 40:6-8).
"Mark Rock twice, Yah." or "House of G-d mark the Rock, Yah"
"Mark Rock twice, Yah."
"House of G-d mark the Rock, Yah"
What a picture of the "Messiah" who accompanied Israel in the wilderness.
"And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that accompanied them: and that Rock was Messiah." I Corinthians 10:4
That Rock was struck (marked) twice by Moses, when it was only to be struck once (Exodus 17:6; Numbers 20:8-11). Before all the eyes of Israel, Moses was only to "speak" to the Rock, and it would have yielded water the second time. For this sin of marking the Rock a second time, Moses did not enter the Land of Promise. His anger "mared the Word Picture" G-d was painting for us. This sin cost Moses his life. The "Rock" our Messiah, was offered up, marked (struck) in His body once and it was for all, Hebrews 10:10. OK, lets get back to the second Covenant made with Moses.
So a second Covenant was indeed made with Moses in the land of Moab, the place called "seed of the father" just before they entered the Land of Promise. However this was not like the first one made at Mt. Sinai, this one would have a "promise" attached to it! Lets read that promise:
"And the L-RD your G-d will circumcise your heart, and the heart of your seed, to love the L-RD your G-d with all your heart, and with all your soul, that you may live!"
(Before this was spoken, Israel was told to: "Circumcise the foreskin of her heart, and be no more stiffnecked." Deut. 10:16 - Now however, Moses is telling them that "the L-RD your G-d will circumcise your heart and the heart of your seed." This is the PROMISE of the second Covenant, made in the place called "the Seed of the Father.")
Continuing, we read the following:
11 For this Commandment which I command you this day, it is not HIDDEN from you neither is it far off.
12 It is not in Heaven, that you should say, Who shall go up for us to Heaven, and bring it to us, that we may hear it, and do it?
13 Neither is it beyond the sea, that you should say, Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it?
14 But the word is very nigh to you, in your mouth, and in your heart, that you may do it.
15 See! I have set before you this day life and good, and death and evil;
16 In that I command you this day to love the L-RD your G-d, to walk in His ways, and to keep His Commandments and His statutes and His judgments, that you may live and multiply: and the L-RD your G-d shall bless you in the land were you go to possess it.
17 But if your heart turns away, so that you will not hear, but shall be drawn away and worship other G-ds, and serve them;
18 I announce to you this day, that you shall surely perish, and that you shall not prolong your days upon the land, where you pass over Jordan to go to possess it.
19 I call Heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both you and your seed may live:
20 That you may love the L-RD your G-d, and that you may obey His Voice, and that you may cleave to Him: for He is your life, and the length of your days: that you may dwell in the land which the L-RD sware to your Fathers, to Avraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob (Genesis 12:1-3, 17:7) to give them.
Then the Scriptures paint the following by names of the places, as Moses closes his testament:
1 And Moses went up from the plains of Moab (seed of the father) to the mountain of Nebo (speaking prophecy), to the top of Pisgah (rocky part peak), that is over against Jericho (a place of sweet fragrance). And the L-RD showed him ALL the land of Gilead (eternal witness), to Dan (he will judge),
2 And ALL Naphtali (strife and wrestling), and the land of Ephraim, (double fruitfulness), and Manasseh (he will cause you to forget), and ALL the land of Judah (praise ye a son), to the utmost sea,
3 And the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho (a place of sweet fragrance), the city of palm trees, unto Zoar (brightness).
4 And the L-RD said to him, This is the land which I sware to Avraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it to your seed: I have caused you to see it with your eyes, but you shall not go over to the Promise Land.
5 So Moses the servant of the L-RD died there in the land of Moab, (seed of the father) according to the Word of the L-RD.
6 And the L-RD buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, (seed of the father) over against Bethpeor (house of Opening, or Gap): but no man knows of Moses sepulcher unto this day.
7 And Moses was an hundred and twenty years old (a signpost age, just like 120 given to Noah before the flood), when he died: his eye was not dim, nor was his natural force abated.
8 And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab (seed of the father) thirty days: so the days of weeping and mourning for Moses were ended.
9 And Joshua (he shall save) the son of Nun (eternity - a fish), was full of the Spirit of Wisdom; (the Holy Spirit) for Moses had laid his hands upon him: and the children of Israel listened to him, and did as the L-RD commanded Moses.
10 And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like Moses, whom the L-RD knew face to face,
11 In all the signs and the wonders, which the L-RD sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land,
12 And in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel. (Barbara Di Gilio Shemology of the KJV).
End of the Book of the Torah
G-d in His Mercy showed Moses "all things!" Even to the Tree (Cross) and the Kingdom which is to come after. Moses is Dead! Now in the next book we read about Joshua. Chapter 1:1-9 we read about Yahshu'ah, a type and Word Picture of the Messiah Yeshua.
Yahshu'ah = Joshua
Yahshu'ah = Yeshua
The L-RD is talking to Yahshu'ah who is in type a picture of Yeshua the Messiah. In the following verses G-d is not speaking to Israel, but to Yahshu'ah the son of Nun, i.e., Eternity.
1 Now after the death of Moses the servant of the L-RD, it came to pass that the L-RD spoke to Joshua Moses' minister, saying,
2 Moses my servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, you, and all the people, to the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel.
3 Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, that have I given to you, as I said to Moses.
4 From the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and to the great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast.
5 There shall not any man be able to stand before you all the days of your life: as I was with Moses, so I will be with you: I will not fail you, nor forsake you.
6 Be strong and of a good courage: for to this people shall you divide for an inheritance the land, which I sware to their Fathers (Avraham, Isaac, and Jacob) to give them.
7 Only you be strong and very fearless, that you may scrutinize to do according to all the Torah, which Moses My servant commanded you: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that you may succeed whithersoever you go.
8 This book of the Torah shall not depart out of your mouth (pey); but you Joshua shall meditate on it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it: for then you shall make your way prosperous, and then you shall have good yielding of results.
9 Have not I commanded you? Be strong and of a good courage; be not afraid, neither be you overwhelmed: for the L-RD your G-d is with Joshua whithersoever you go.
The Covenant at Mt Sinai, and the Covenant at Moab (seed of the father) are not the same Covenants...!
One is made with many people who are going to die in the wilderness of Sinai, and the other is made to a people who are going into the Land. Because the second Covenant is made in Moab or the seed of the Father, it was Yahshu'ah (Joshua) who will bring this new generation into the Promise Land, not Moses, for Moses is dead!
The Torah of Sinai now becomes the Torah of the "Promise."
This second Covenant is now given to Joshua to enforce and establish by the Word of the L-RD for the people of Israel. Messiah Yeshua does the same! He brings all the goodness of the Promise Land to ALL who believe on Him.
This second Covenant (or renewed Covenant) was cut on a "Promise" made with the “Fathers," Avraham, Isaac and Jacob; the Mt. Sinai Covenant was not! Circumcision of the heart is the "Promise" given in Moab!
Click here for Part 2